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Electronic Discovery Software

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A word, note, marking of some sort (graphic), or highlight added to an item (other than original marginalia that is considered part of the original item)

Artificial Intelligence
Simulating human intelligence within the confines of a computer program.

American Standard for Information Interchange. This is a standard code that assigns a number to each of the letters of the alphabet, numeric characters and special characters like a dollar sign or tilde and carriage return, line feed, tab and such. This term has largely been replaced by the term ANSI.

Acronym for Audio Video Interleave. *.AVI is the file extension for some audio/video clips.

Batch File
A batch file is a set of one or more instructions that are used to perform a particular, repetitive operation, for instance you might write a batch file to automate copying your files to a backup volume for safe-keeping. *.BAT is the file extension.

Bates Labeling
Bates Labeling is the attachment of a unique number (in electronic or manual form) for identifying a page of a document. The word Bates comes from the Bates Company, which was one of the originators of numeric (and alpha) stamping machines.

Bibliographic Coding
This is often referred to as coding a document for predefined bibliographic information such as author, date created, addressee and key words.

Bit Map
A bit map is a representation and/or a reconstruction of an image after it has been digitized, often times from a scanned copy.

Acronym for Bit Map (raster type) and also used as a file extension. *.BMP is a graphics file extension.

Boolean Operation
Any operation in which each of the operands take on the result of one or two possible values, TRUE or FALSE (ie: and, or, xor, exor).

Acronym for Computer Aided Design.

Chain of Custody
Chain of custody refers to the path that is taken to the original custodian/owner of a document or chattel.

Acronym for Continuing Legal Education.

Com Port
Serial communication port (ie: COM1, COM2,COM3, COM4).

Complaint (as in a legal document)
This is a plaintiff created document that addresses the legal point(s) of contention that they have against the defendant.

Computer Assisted Legal Research Programs/Repositories.
Lexis, Nexus and Westlaw.

Confidential (document)
This is a document that represents a confidential agreement between an attorney and client such as a medical record.

Acronym for Characters Per Second.

Acronym for Central Processing Unit...the brain of the computer.

Acronym for Digital Audiotape.

Data Compression
This is an algorithm used for storing information at a fraction of its original/normal size.

Data Conversion
This is where information that is stored in one format is converted into a different format (Such as Quattro Pro spreadsheet format *.WB3 to Excel spreadsheet format *.XLS).

Data Integrity
Data integrity is an attempt to ensure that data (in whatever form) retains the highest possible quality. Garbage in, Garbage out!

Data Model
A graphical representation of a data based application (ie: ERwin).

Database Backbone
This is in reference to a database that runs under another application.

Acronym for Dynamic Data Exchange. This is a form of interprocess communications used by Microsoft Windows to support the exchange of commands and data between two simultaneously running applications.

Declassified (as in document)
A document that was previously classified, but after redaction of the classified material, it becomes declassified.

Dedicated File Server
A computer that dedicates it's storage capacity and processing power to the files that support particular applications, often in a network configuration.

A witness that is questioned in a deposition.

A formal pretrial interview of a witness with attorneys (one or more) from both sides present along with a court reporter.

Deskewing is a tool/filter applied to scanned images that attempts to correct any horizontal (or vertical in a landscaped image) imperfections as in an image that was copied at a slight angle. Deskewing is applied prior to running an OCR application so that the orientation of all the image characters is as correct as possible.

Depseckling is a tool/filter that is applied to a scanned image that attempts to clean out any background speckles (small non textual marks) so that the OCR program doesn't waste time trying to interpret a speck that contains no character information.

Dirty Text
Dirty text refers to the OCR output prior to being cleaned up. It is a searchable format that reflects what the OCR engine(s) thought it saw.

This is a point in time during a legal proceeding that comes after the issue of complaint and prior to trial. Discovery is a process where evidentiary items are collected by each side and turned over (at the end of discovery)to the opposing side (except for privilege and confidential evidentiary items).

Document Determination
Documents are often determined by type such as correspondence, bill, periodical and so on. These documents are often organized by like types. Document Determination refers to identifying the type of document.

Document Population
The entire collection of case related documents also known as "the enterprise" or the "whole kit-in-ka-boudle".

Document Retention Plan
Document Retention Plan refers to a process by which only certain documents are retained and the rest are disposed of.

Acronym for Disk Operating System (ie: MS-DOS).

Acronym for Dots Per Inch (used in describing monitor resolution ie: 800x600 dpi).

Electronic Discovery
Electronic Discovery refers to the processing of electronic forms of information such as E-mail, word processing documents, electronic spreadsheets, database contents and so on.

Encryption is the translation of data into unreadable codes to maintain security.

Enterprise refers to the entire population of information items associated to a particular organization.

File Server
File server is networked computer dedicated to storing all the files of a particular application (ie: dedicated file server).

Flat File
Flat file is a non-relational text based file (ie: a WordPerfect document).

Flat File Database
Flat file database is a non-relational database such as an electronic spreadsheet.

Flat Panel Display Monitor
Flat panel display monitor is a very thin monitor that utilizes gas-plasma and voltage to create a display that need no back lighting, which is why conventional monitors are so much larger.

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol. A standard method of transferring files over the Internet.

Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy logic is a full text searching technique that will interpret portions of words in a search list so as to find misspelled words or portions of a word that didn't OCR 100% correctly.

Acronym for Graphics Interchange Format. *.GIF is a graphical file extension.

Gigabyte (GB)
Equal to 1,000 megabytes (MB). This is either 1,000,000,000 bytes (if you are looking at a hard drive, or 1,073,741,824 bytes (if you are looking at computer memory).

Grayscale refers to shades of gray that represent light and dark portions of an image at a higher quality than black and white. Color images can be converted to grayscale as the colors are represented by various shades of gray. Monochrome monitors utilize grayscale resolutions.

Acronym for Graphical User Interface, or "Gooey". This is the icons on a Windows based PC.

Hand writing recognition software for interpreting cursive writing into a machine-readable format.

Acronym for HyperText Markup Language. *.HTML is often used for web based files (internet/intranet).

Intelligent character recognition for interpreting hand printed text.

This is an official written set of questions sent to a witness that is answered and admitted as evidence.

Acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. This is a high speed digital telephone service. A combination of 2 phone lines that equals throughput of digital information at128K (64KB per line).

Joint Application Development (JAD)
This is an application development approach where users and the technical staff get together and development requirements for a particular application together.

Acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group. This is the leading international standard for compressing digital photographic images (at a ratio of about 10:1). *.JPG or *.JPEG are the graphical file extension.

Acronym for Local Area Network.

Acronym for Liquid Character Display. Used to describe a type of monitor.

Legacy Computer System
A computer system that manages/reflects historical information.

This is a legal research tool/repository that contains numerous law related legacy documents.

Light Pen
A hand-held input device with a light sensitive probe or stylus connected to the computer's graphics adapter board by a cable. Used for writing or sketching on screen or as a pointing device for making selections.

Lumen is a measure of brightness often associated with the amount of light a projector is capable of.

Megabyte (MB)
A unit of information equal to 1,000 kilobytes (KB) or 1,048,576 bytes.

MO (storage medium)
Acronym for Magneto Optical. This is read /write media.

Acronym for Motion Picture Experts Group. *.MPG file extension used for playing streaming digitized video.

This is a secondary version of MPEG that is capable of higher quality because of the larger file size/associated compression algorithm. *.MP2 is the file extension.

MPEG3 is used for the playing of CD clips. *.MP3 is the file extension.

Combining various forms of media such as sound, image, text and video.

This is a legal research tool/repository that contains numerous law related legacy documents.

Numeric Character
Characters that are represented by one or more numbers, using the characters 0-9.

Neural Networks
A type of Artificial Intelligence that functions in a software decision making mode, modeled after the human brain.

Acronym for Optical Character Recognition.

OCR Engine
This is the workhorse/algorithm within an OCR application that deciphers the various textual characters contained within a bit map version of a page.

OCR Voting Technology
This is where an application uses multiple OCR engines to interpret scanned images. Each engine casts a vote on what it thinks it saw. A consensus is taken from the votes and the result is a higher quality OCR full text file.

Acronym for Open Database Connectivity. Used for migrating or importing database information between different database applications (ie: Access to Paradox).

Acronym for Object Linking and Embedding. Used for embedding or linking information created in one application into a document created in another application (ie: putting picture created in Photo House into a WordPerfect document).

Page Orientation
Standard is Portrait (81/2 by 11) and sideways is called Landscape (11 x 81/2).

Acronym for Portable Document Format. *.PDF, this is an Adobe proprietary file extension for an Adobe document or image.

A mnemonic term meaning picture element.

The Plaintiff is the party that has initiated legal action against another.

Proprietary (document)
A Proprietary document refers to anything that is something of a trade secret or information that is essential to a client's competitive advantage.

Acronym for Random Array of Inexpensive Disks. This is an array of hard drives used for mass storage.

Raster (bit map)
This refers to a bit map style.

This is the process of removing certain information from a document.

Relational Database
A relational database is built on one or more indexes of information so that when a single change is made, it can be reflected into multiple areas (relationships) as in a one to many or many to many type relationships.

Searchable Full Text
Any full text (one or more characters) information that can be found in an electronic capacity via some type of automated querying method.

Searchable Digital Video
This is video that has been digitized and indexed.

A Stipulation is a request for an agreement.

Thumbnail is small bit map version of a full size image.

Tagged Image File Format, TIFF Group IV is the most widely accepted bit map format for text based images. *.TIF or *.TIFF file extension.

Topological Analysis
This is basically bit map type in Topology...a reference to a detailed description of the shape and size of an object contained in a map.

Trial Transcript
This is the transcript that the court room reporter creates during a trial.

Ugly Document
A document where the letters run into and bleed into each other and the print is not very legible, such as 20 year old newspaper clipping that has been faxed twice then copied 10 times producing a lousy best copy (a piece of paper that only a mother tree could love).

Vector Bit Map
This is a style of image that is scalable based on a mathematical algorithm, such as a PDF (Adobe) image format. It is defined as a set of lines and areas, rather than as an image; so it's more of a map, where a bitmap graphis would be a photograph.

Voice Recognition
This is an application where the human voice can be recognized and converted into text.

Web Based Repository
This is a Internet or Intranet based repository of information.

This is a legal research tool/repository that contains numerous law related legacy documents.

WORM (storage media)
Write once read many, CD/R style.